With the development of China's economy and the acceleration of industrialization, oil, petrochemical, boiler, nuclear power, military, shipbuilding, fertilizer and other enterprises that have long relied on imported stainless steel pipes have turned their attention to stainless steel pipe products produced by Chinese enterprises. Development and construction meet the needs of the enterprise and the industry for stainless steel pipes. The general user has greatly improved the understanding of the stainless steel pipe, and began to select the material reasonably in the process of purchasing, paying attention to the material and physical properties of the steel pipe. There is a new trend in the demand for stainless steel seamless pipes: stainless steel pipes are widely used for condensers for generator sets; pipes for seawater purification devices are being replaced by dual-phase steel and super-ferritic stainless steel; oil well pipes are made of long stainless steel pipes ( Reduce joints; oil and gas open pipes, from 9Cr to 13Cr, duplex steel, super austenite, G3, G8, etc.; boiler tubes to meet supercritical, ultra-supercritical requirements, materials developed to 347H , super304, supet310s; the development of nuclear power industry drives a new opportunity for the development of high-end stainless steel pipe.
Second, the current production and quality of stainless steel pipes in China
China's current stainless steel seamless pipe enterprises use advanced three-step smelting technology, basically no need to return the charge, ingot, forging (rolling), extrusion, perforation, cold rolling, perfect controllable heat treatment means, no chloride ions exist Acid pickling, reliable chemical, mechanical, physical, flaw detection and other inspection methods, clean production and assembly production environment, can produce nuclear industry, electronics industry, aerospace, ships and other stainless steel tubes used in enterprises. There are not many companies close to the above process level. Through efforts and cooperation, the production of high-pressure boiler tubes, oil (gas) well pipes, high-end chemical pipes and ship vessels for power stations account for about 15%-20% of the national output. The enterprise with basically reliable quality, the production process is basically smelted by electric furnace, the recycled material accounts for about 60%, ingot or continuous casting, hot rolled tube blank, perforation, general roller hearth furnace heat treatment, mixed acid pickling, tap water cleaning, routine inspection It can produce stainless steel seamless pipes for general chemical, printing and dyeing machinery manufacturing, vehicles and other industries. The output of these enterprises accounts for about 50% of China's total output.
Third. Overview of demand for medium and high-end stainless steel seamless pipes in major industries in China
1. Oil and gas industry
The main oil and gas pipelines are PetroChina, Sinopec and CNOOC. The main applications are oil wells (pipes) and gas gathering stations. The petroleum industry must produce high-grade steel, corrosion-resistant and oil-well pipes with special requirements. Most of the current dependence on imports. With the development of natural gas and petroleum in China, high-volume gas fields and oil fields have been discovered in western areas such as eastern Sichuan and Xinjiang. The exploitation of these oil and gas fields has encountered the problem of coexistence of CO2, H2 S and CL ions. The highest content of CO2 exceeds 10 %, H2 S exceeds 60,000 ppm, and CL ions exceed 100,000 ppm. Therefore, high-alloy steel and stainless steel must be used to ensure the safety of oil and gas wells (one oil and gas well is tens of millions, and more than 100 million yuan). At present, the oil pipe and casing suitable for water injection environment are made of 13Cr and compounded materials. The oil pipes and casings suitable for CO2 moisture working environment are made of austenitic stainless steel; suitable for H2S-based, H2 S and CO2 coexistence environment. , using dual-phase steel and super austenite; suitable for CO2-based, H2S, CO2 coexistence environment, using dual-phase steel, super-alloy, high-alloy and QTHI nickel-based alloy. Among these materials, mainly include: 13Cr martensitic stainless steel and modified, 22Cr, 25Cr duplex stainless steel, Cr25Ni36, Cr25Ni38, Cr28Ni43 and other super-stainless steel, Monel K alloy and G3, G8 and other materials. In 2010, the oil was opened with stainless steel pipe, high-Cr steel pipe and high-nickel alloy pipe of about 25,000 tons. Main specifications: 2〞, 2.5〞, 3.5〞, 4.5〞, 5.5〞, 7〞, 8〞, 9〞 maximum caliber It is ∮508mm*30mm. The ground uses stainless steel pipes of about 6,000 tons, and the underground stainless steel seamless pipes are about 30,000 tons. Oil and gas are currently one of the world's most important strategic materials. By 2020, China's oil well exploitation will gradually develop in the west, desert, alpine and marine areas. The current global offshore oil and gas production accounts for 50%, and 44% of future oil and gas is in the deep sea area. China's oceans have about 36 billion tons of oil resources. At present, China is limited to offshore within 200 meters, and it will be a period of rapid development by 2020. The “combustible ice” of oil and gas field reserves in the South China Sea equivalent to 20 billion tons of oil is under development, which will give corrosion resistance and extrusion resistance. Duplex stainless steel seamless pipe provides a large demand space.
2, Fertilizer industry
At present, there are 40 large-scale chemical fertilizer enterprises and more than 2,518 small and medium-sized chemical fertilizer enterprises in China. It mainly produces urea, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potassium fertilizer and chloramine, ammonium bicarbonate, phosphorus ammonia and sulfuric acid base fertilizer. The basic fertilizer has been processed into a compound fertilizer through secondary processing; at present, China has obtained more than 2,500 compound fertilizer production license enterprises with a production capacity of more than 12 million tons. The scale of large-scale fertilizer enterprises is 400,000 tons/year, and the medium-sized average is 200,000 tons/year. In 2008, the total output of chemical fertilizers (demolition) was about 55,927,900 tons. The basic fertilizer process is mainly to use stainless steel equipment to complete the production process. Among the four major equipments for fertilizer production, the furnace tube to the synthesis tower and high-pressure condenser are the most demanding. Generally, the materials need to be 316L, 317L, 321 347H, 1Cr25Ni20, 1Cr36Ni38 and super-alloy, high-alloy steels, etc., to meet the needs of high temperature and strong corrosion. The best service life of the furnace tube is 3-4 years, generally 1-2 years, and the specifications of the furnace tube are mainly ф159mm-406mm. At present, the gasification furnace and evaporator of the fertilizer industry use not less than 8,000 tons of high-quality stainless steel pipes every year, almost all rely on imports, and also use cast stainless steel pipes. The other pipes of the fertilizer industry are around 30,000 tons a year. The total amount of stainless steel pipes for fertilizer industry in China is about 35,000 tons per year.
3. Chemical industry
By 2020, China's oil consumption will be about 450-460 million tons. Natural gas consumption is 200 billion cubic meters, and the corresponding crude oil processing capacity and ethylene production capacity reach 28.5 million tons. Stainless steel pipes in the petrochemical industry are mainly used for heating pipes and heat exchange gas pipes, atmospheric and pressure post-cooler pipes, tray coils, water cooler heat exchange pipes, cooler pipes, flue pipes, and hydrogenation devices. Process pipeline. Part of the heat exchanger and dryer piping in the PTA unit, the acetic acid plant process line, and the synthesis reactor tube in the methanol mixture. The material flows out of the heat effect, the medium pressure flash tank top condenser tube, the ethylene catalyst in the catalyst regeneration cooler tube, etc., only the petrochemical industry, the annual need for stainless steel pipe not less than 100,000 tons, other industries are also used in 60,000-7 10,000 tons / year.
4. Boiler industry
By 2020, China plans to add 294 million kW of generator capacity. According to the analysis of the current new projects, it is possible to develop to 360 million to 430 million kW. In the past few years, it was around 90 million kW per year. After 2010, the annual installed capacity was between 3200-4200 kW. Add 220 million to 280 million kW of thermal power generators. About 6000kW per year. The state focuses on the development of supercritical, ultra-supercritical high-efficiency thermal power generating units. The efficiency of the generator set depends mainly on the pressure and temperature parameters of the steam. The higher the parameters, the higher the efficiency. The supercritical unit is generally 700,000 kW and the steam pressure is 25.2 MPa. Temperature 566 ° C / 566 ° C, ultra-supercritical unit pressure 27.26 MPa, temperature 600 ° C / 600 ° C As supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers are put into production, the requirements for furnace tubes are getting higher and higher. The average quota of steel pipes for power generation equipment is about 90T/10,000 kW, of which stainless steel is about 5-8T/10,000 kW. By 2010, an average of 32,000-42,000 tons of stainless steel seamless pipes are used every year. The overhaul period of the power station boiler is 8 years. Therefore, the consumption of stainless steel pipes for boilers should not only consider the needs of new units, but also meet the demand for stainless steel pipes in each overhaul cycle.
5. Nuclear industry
By 2020, China's nuclear power industry will develop at a high speed, and nuclear power projects such as Zhejiang Sanmen, Shandong Haiyang, Liaoning Hongyan River, Fujian Ningjia, and Guangdong Yangjiang are under construction. The installed capacity has increased from 9.8 million kW to 30 million kW. This requires the simultaneous development of the nuclear fuel industry and the nuclear power industry. The whole process equipment for nuclear fuel production uses stainless steel, high alloy steel and mixed materials such as lead and aluminum, of which stainless steel accounts for 80%. According to the current development speed of China's nuclear industry, it is estimated that the annual demand will increase by about 5,000 tons. The nuclear power industry is a nuclear reactor used for power generation, which is divided into light water reactors and nano-cooling reactors. Except that the cladding material of the equipment is changed from lead to stainless steel containing Ti, the internal structure is all stainless steel tubes. The nuclear industry also has waste liquid and waste treatment. In order to prevent leakage and avoid pollution, the 0Cr25Ni20Nb DN300 steel pipe is combined with lead and antimony to form a cylinder, sink in deep water or bury in the desert area, after several decades or several A hundred years of energy decay will be safe for the natural world and for human society. A factory also uses hundreds of tons per year.
Fourth, the development of stainless steel seamless pipe industry
The integration and reorganization of high-end enterprises in stainless steel pipes is to exploit the advantages of various enterprises, reduce re-construction, reduce vicious competition, stabilize product quality, improve material cost performance, and facilitate the development trend of participating in international circulation.
The professionalization of the company's product direction is further improved, which can be roughly divided into the production of nuclear industrial tubes, boiler tubes, petrochemical tubes, oil (gas) open tubes, ship tubes and general fluid tubes. plant. In the next few years, the product advantages of extra-large steel pipe enterprises will become increasingly apparent.
In the next few years, China will build a super-large-scale special steel pipe company. The products are mainly made of stainless steel, including alloy steel and high-alloy steel. The pipe diameter is 406mm-∮12000mm and the wall thickness is 40mm-270mm. The production capacity is between 500,000 and 700,000 tons/year, which makes China rely on imported large-diameter, large-wall-thick steel pipes to achieve self-sufficiency.
The overall consumption market of stainless steel seamless pipes in China is still growing. At present, despite the impact of the financial crisis, the overall economic development level of the country is still good. It is predicted that by 2020, the total demand for stainless steel seamless pipes in China will reach 500,000. 550,000 tons / year, industrial stainless steel welded pipe 80,000-100,000 tons, water industry pipe 200,000 tons.
By 2020, China's high-end stainless steel seamless steel pipe will basically meet the needs of medium and high-end pipe use in China's nuclear industry, boiler industry, oil and gas well industry, shipbuilding industry, electronics industry, fertilizer industry and other fields. At the same time, it is difficult to solve the problem of import demand. In the future, China's stainless steel seamless steel pipe can have the world's advanced technology and equipment level, China's stainless steel seamless steel pipe will enter a new stage of exhibition.