Standard flange cover openings have always been present in ASME B16.5 and are made according to standard reducing flanges. However, due to the need for a clear statement in the ASME VIII -1 standard. There are different understandings as to whether calculations are needed.
A few days ago, while searching for other questions in ASME Interpretations, I shared a Q&A related to the flange cover opening with everyone.
ASME VIII -1 INTERPRETATIONS 19-05
The first question, answer NO, should be related to the distance between the opening and gasket sealing diameter.
The second question is that there is an axial opening in the center of the standard flange cover. The diameter limit of the opening is shown in the screenshot of ASME B16.5 above (to be verbose, some people may need help to read the table: 1, 2 columns per group, 3, 4 columns per group, 5, 6 columns per group). Please note that the minimum size limit is required. It can be directly selected according to the relevant limitations of standard flanges (MAWP).
The third question is whether an axial opening in the center of the standard flange cover is commonly encountered in work. The answer is that there is no need to calculate the hole reinforcement according to UG-39; choose according to the MAWP of the standard flange!
The question and response to this third question are quite close to the provisions of EN 13445. The provisions of EN13445 are not repeated in the following article.
Please also pay attention to the question of the questioner, which implies the questioner's understanding of the standard terms; otherwise, he might ask 4 - 5 questions instead of only 3.
Finally, a reminder: only ASME standard interpretation, temporarily not set to the national standard; after the national standard, equipment can do so, I don't know!
Just grind so much!